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HealthyLife
Programme for Sustainable Dairy Farming

Reducing the Negative Energy Balance

Increase feed intake in early lactation to reduce negative energy balance

Clinical Ketosis in dairy cows is only the tip of the iceberg

Two weeks before calving, the strong decrease in dry matter intake can already result in a negative energy balance (NEB)34. Dairy cows in NEB have an increased risk to develop subclinical or clinical ketosis. Clinical ketosis in cows is highly visible, but is only the tip of the iceberg.

 

Subclinical ketosis in cattle is much more common than clinical ketosis is. Signs suggestive of subclinical ketosis in dairy cows are51,52:

  • Low dry matter intake
  • A drop of more than 1,0 point in body condition score
  • Low milk production with a reduction of protein levels in milk
  • Poor fertility
  • Impaired immune function

The mobilisation of body fat reserves results in a release of non esterified fatty acids (NEFA’s). When this mobilization is adequate and well regulated, these NEFA’s can be fully metabolized to cover the energy needs for milk production. If this adaptation fails, metabolic stress occurs37. This increases the risk to develop a number of metabolic disorders such as subclinical or clinical ketosis and milk fever.

Managing the negative energy balance of a dairy herd correctly will therefore greatly improve farm profitability.

How to measure the Body Condition Score of a dairy cow?

Joep Driessen from the CowSignals training group explains how the body condition score (BCS) of dairy cows should be measured. This can’t be done on the basis of visual inspection only, it is important to feel how much fat is under the skin of the cow. The ideal BCS for a dairy cow is 3.0.

The ideal Body Condition Score of a dairy cow is 3.0. If the BCS is 2.0 or below, there is something wrong with the cow, it is suffering from disease. If the milk production starts dropping at the end of lactation and there is no possibility to adapt the diet, the BCS will increase to 4.0 or higher. This will result in problems around calving and an increased risk of involuntary culling during the next lactation.

Download more research and documentation

You can access all of our documentation about HealthyLife protocols, sustainable dairy farming and latest research insights about Dairry Cow transition management.

Manage the Body Condition Score and the Negative Energy Balance correctly

To better monitor the Body Condition Score we have created a poster with visuals of cows with Body condition scores between 1 and 5. This can help you to ensure cows have a BCS between 3 and 3.5 at calving.

Our HealthyLife Protocol on managing the negative energy balance of dairy cows provides practical tips on how to reduce the impact of NEB.

The HealthyLife technical brochure "Managing the negative energy balance in cows" reviews all the latest scientific insights on NEB.

Register once and download all you need

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Reducing the Negative Energy Balance

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HealthyLife
Programme for Sustainable Dairy Farming

Increase feed intake in early lactation to reduce negative energy balance

HealthyLife
Programme for Sustainable Dairy Farming

Increase feed intake in early lactation to reduce negative energy balance

Clinical Ketosis in dairy cows is only the tip of the iceberg

Two weeks before calving, the strong decrease in dry matter intake can already result in a negative energy balance (NEB)34. Dairy cows in NEB have an increased risk to develop subclinical or clinical ketosis. Clinical ketosis in cows is highly visible, but is only the tip of the iceberg.

 

pH and production of LPS in rumen, caecum and faeces of cows fed high amounts of grain compared to control cows. Increasing the level of starch decreased pH and increased LPS both in the rumen and the hindgut (Adapted from Li et al, 2012)39.

Subclinical ketosis in cattle is much more common than clinical ketosis is. Signs suggestive of subclinical ketosis in dairy cows are51,52:

  • Low dry matter intake
  • A drop of more than 1,0 point in body condition score
  • Low milk production with a reduction of protein levels in milk
  • Poor fertility
  • Impaired immune function

The mobilisation of body fat reserves results in a release of non esterified fatty acids (NEFA’s). When this mobilization is adequate and well regulated, these NEFA’s can be fully metabolized to cover the energy needs for milk production. If this adaptation fails, metabolic stress occurs37. This increases the risk to develop a number of metabolic disorders such as subclinical or clinical ketosis and milk fever.

Managing the negative energy balance of a dairy herd correctly will therefore greatly improve farm profitability.

How to measure the Body Condition Score of a dairy cow?

Joep Driessen from the CowSignals training group explains how the body condition score (BCS) of dairy cows should be measured. This can’t be done on the basis of visual inspection only, it is important to feel how much fat is under the skin of the cow. The ideal BCS for a dairy cow is 3.0.

The ideal Body Condition Score of a dairy cow is 3.0. If the BCS is 2.0 or below, there is something wrong with the cow, it is suffering from disease. If the milk production starts dropping at the end of lactation and there is no possibility to adapt the diet, the BCS will increase to 4.0 or higher. This will result in problems around calving and an increased risk of involuntary culling during the next lactation.

HealthyLife | solutions based on science

Manage heat stress to maintain dairy performance during this summer with Selko® LactiBute.

Contact your local Selko HealthyLife specialist
for a free consult.

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Thank you for contacting HealthyLife

We have just sent you an email to confirm your request. We will contact you within the next 3 business days.

Enjoy your day,
the HealthyLife global marketing team

HealthyLife | solutions based on science

Manage heat stress to maintain dairy performance during this summer with Selko® LactiBute.

Contact your local Selko HealthyLife specialist for a free consult.

This is not correct
This is not correct
This is not correct
This is not correct
This is not correct

Thank you for contacting HealthyLife

We have just sent you an email to confirm your request. We will contact you within the next 3 business days.

Enjoy your day,
the HealthyLife global marketing team

More about transition management...

To better monitor the Body Condition Score we have created a poster with visuals of cows with Body condition scores between 1 and 5. This can help you to ensure cows have a BCS between 3 and 3.5 at calving.

Our HealthyLife Protocol on managing the negative energy balance of dairy cows provides practical tips on how to reduce the impact of NEB.

The HealthyLife technical brochure "Managing the negative energy balance in cows" reviews all the latest scientific insights on NEB.

####Register once and download all you need
You can access all of our documentation about HealthyLife protocols, sustainable dairy farming and latest research insights about Dairry Cow transition management.

This is not correct
This field is required
This is not correct
This is not correct.
This is not correct

Thank you for your interest in HealthyLife

We have just sent you an email. Follow the instructions in this email to complete your download. Notice that In some cases, spam filters can block automated emails. If you do not find the email in your inbox, please check your junk email folder.

Have a nice day!

To better monitor the Body Condition Score we have created a poster with visuals of cows with Body condition scores between 1 and 5. This can help you to ensure cows have a BCS between 3 and 3.5 at calving.

Our HealthyLife Protocol on managing the negative energy balance of dairy cows provides practical tips on how to reduce the impact of NEB.

The HealthyLife technical brochure "Managing the negative energy balance in cows" reviews all the latest scientific insights on NEB.

Or visit our download center for more information;

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